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    Spray and Dust Aerosol Laboratory

    Dr. Xiaofei Wang's Research Group at Fudan University

    Shanghai, China

  • Research

    Welcome to Dr. Xiaofei Wang’s research group (SDAL) at Fudan University. Spray aerosol and dust aerosol are the two major sources of atmospheric and industrial aerosols. However, their production mechanisms are not fully understood. Their roles in pollutants transport have not been extensively studied. Additionally, they have promising potential for use in various industrial applications. Our group is focused on the following research topics: (1) physical production mechanisms of spray aerosol and dust aerosol; (2) environment and climate impact of spray/dust aerosols; (3) development of industrial applications using spray aerosols; and (4) development of aerosol instruments.

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    Spray aerosol production and transfer of pollutants through the air-water interface

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    Dust aerosol production and transfer of pollutants through the air-soil interface

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    Development of aerosol instruments

  • P. I.

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    Dr. Xiaofei Wang

    Tenure Track Research Scientist (研究员,博士生导师)



    Ph.D., Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering, May 2014

    Washington University in St. Louis


    M.S., Environmental Science, June 2009

    Fudan University


    B.S., Environmental Science, June 2007

    Fudan University


    Research Experience

    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering,

    Fudan University

    Tenure Track Research Scientist/ Principal Investigator, 2018 – Present.


    Center for Aerosol Impacts on Climate and the Environment

    University of California, San Diego

    Assistant Project Scientist, 2016 – 2018. Supervisor: Kimberly A. Prather

    Postdoctoral Scholar, 2014 – 2016.


    Department of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering

    Washington University in St. Louis

    Research Assistant/Ph.D. Student, 2009 – 2014. Advisor: Pratim Biswas


    Department of Environmental Science and Engineering

    Fudan University

    Research Assistant/M.S. Student 2007 - 2009. Advisor: Xin Yang


  • Group Members

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    Dr. Hong Chen

    Senior Engineer

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    Dr. Xiaohui Lu

    Senior Engineer

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    Shaodong Chen

    Graduate Student

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    Yuqi Gan

    Graduate Student

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    Qianqian Gao

    Graduate Student

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    Xinhua Jiang

    Graduate Student

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    Xiewen Ma

    Graduate Student

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    Shurong Wang

    Graduate Student

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    Shanye Yang

    Graduate Student

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    Ruoyu Zhang

    Graduate Student

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    Tao Zhang

    Graduate Student

  • Publications

    *: Corresponding author

    : Co-first author

    Lab members are bolded.


    Please visit the most updated publication list at: https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&user=3cSOZwwAAAAJ


    1. Gan, Y.; Lu, X.*; Chen, S.; Jiang, X.; Yang, S.; Ma, X.; Li, M.; Yang, F.; Shi, Y.; Wang, X.*, Aqueous-phase formation of N-containing secondary organic compounds affected by the ionic strength. Journal of Environmental Sciences 2024 138 88-101.


    2. Gao, Q.; Zhu, S.; Zhou, K.; Zhai, J.; Chen, S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, S.; Han, J.; Lu, X.; Chen, H.; Zhang, L.; Wang, L.; Wang, Z.; Yang, X.; Ying, Q.; Zhang, H.*; Chen, J.*; Wang, X.*, High Enrichment of Heavy Metals in Fine Particulate Matter through Dust Aerosol Generation. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, In press


    3. Chen, S.; Lu, X.*; Ma, X.; Zhu, X.; Gao, Q.; Jiang, X.; Yang, S.; Gan, Y.; Wang, X.* Aerosol emission from soil during field burning. Atmospheric Environment 2023, 119924.


    4. Ma, X.; Gao, Q.; Jiang, X.; Chen, S.; Gan, Y.; Zhang, T.; Lu, X.; Wang, X.* Direct effects of air humidity on dust aerosol production: Evidences for the surprising role of electrostatic forces. Geophysical Research Letters 2023 50 (13), e2023GL103639.


    5. Gao, Q.; Zhu, X.; Wang, Q.; Zhou, K.; Lu, X.; Wang, Z.*; Wang, X.* Enrichment and transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through dust aerosol generation from soil to the air. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering 2023 17(1): 10


    6. Santander, M. V.; Malfatti, F.; Pendergraft, M. A.; Morris, C.; Kimble, K. L.; Mitts, B. A.; Wang, X.; Mayer, K. J.; Sauer, J.; Lee, C. Bacterial Control of Marine Humic‐Like Substance Production, Composition, Size, and Transfer to Sea Spray Aerosols During Phytoplankton Blooms. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2023 128(4): e2022JD036869.


    7. Qi, X.; Zhu, X.; Gao, Q.; Wang, Q.; Pan, Z.; Wang, Z.*; Wang, X.*, A Lab Simulation Study on the Impact of Oil Spills on the Distribution of Heavy Metals and PAHs in Sea Spray Aerosols. Journal of Fudan University (Natural Science) 2023 DOI: 10.15943/j.cnki.fdxb-jns.20230519.001 (In Chinese)


    8. Shi, Y.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, T.; He, F.; Zheng, Y.; Yang, J.; Wu, C.*; Wang, X.*, Simulation of COVID-19 Spread and Infection Probability through Aerosol Transmission: A Case Study of Subway Cars. Journal of Environmental & Occupational Medicine 2023 In press (In Chinese).


    9. Zhang, R.; Lu, X.; Wang, L.; Chen, J.; Chen, D. R.; Wang, X.*, Extremely Inexpensive and Simple Method to Remove Indoor Respiratory Aerosols. Environment Science & Technology Letters, In press.


    10. Zhang, T.; Lu, X.; Zhang, R.; Jiang, X.; Yang, S.; Ma, X.; Gao, Q.; Wang, X.* Ultrasonic Humidifier Aerosols: Observed High Heavy Metal Enrichment and a New Emission Control Method. Journal of Environmental Sciences, In press.


    11. Li, H.; Qin, X.; Chen, J.; Wang, G.; Liu, C.; Lu, D.; Zheng, H.; Song, X.; Gao, Q.; Xu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, J.; Wang, X., Deng, C.; Huang, K., Continuous Measurement and Molecular Compositions of Atmospheric Water-Soluble Brown Carbon in the Nearshore Marine Boundary Layer of Northern China: Secondary Formation and Influencing Factors. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2023, e2023JD038565.


    12. Wang, X.*; Zhang, Y.; Yang, X. Investigating aerosol chemistry using Real-Time Single Particle Mass Spectrometry: A viewpoint on its recent development. Applied Geochemistry 2023 149: 105554.


    13. Villermaux, E.; Wang, X.; Deike, L. Bubbles spray aerosols: Certitudes and mysteries. PNAS Nexus 2022 1(5): 1-13.


    14. Yang, S.; Zhang, T.; Gan, Y.; Lu, X.; Chen, H.; Chen, J.; Yang, X.; Wang, X.*, Constraining Microplastic Particle Emission Flux from the Ocean. Environment Science & Technology Letters 2022 9 (6) 513-519.


    15. Jiang, X.; Rotily, L.; Villermaux, E.; Wang, X.* Reply to Gañán-Calvo: Aerosol production from the bursting of submillimeter bubbles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2022 119(34): e2209370119


    16. Jiang, X.; Rotily, L.; Villermaux, E.; Wang, X.*, Submicron Drops from Flapping Bursting Bubbles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2022 119 (1) e2112924119.


    17. Wang, S.; Zhou, K.; Lu, X.; Chen, H.; Yang, F.; Li, Q.; Chen, J.; Prather, K. A.; Yang, X.*; Wang, X.*, Online shape and density measurement of single aerosol particles. Journal of Aerosol Science 2022 159 105880.


    18. Li, K.; Wang, X.; Lu, X.; Chen, H.; Yang, X. Effects of Volatile Components on Mixing State and Size Distribution of Individual Black Carbon Aerosols. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 2022 22: 210400.


    19. Wang, X.*; Wang, L.; Chen, J. Recent Progress in the Development of New Observation Techniques for Complex Air Pollution. Science and Technology Review 2022, 40(15) (In Chinese)


    20. Lian, X.; Tang, G.; Dao, X.; Hu, X.; Xiong, X.; Zhang, G.; Wang, Z.; Cheng, C.; Wang, X.; Bi, X. Seasonal variations of imidazoles in urban areas of Beijing and Guangzhou, China by single particle mass spectrometry. Science of The Total Environment 2022 844: 156995.


    21. Kang, H.; Shang, X.; Abdumutallip, M.; Chen, Y.; Li, L.; Wang, X.; Li, C.; Ouyang, H.; Tang, X.; Wang, L. Accurate observation of black and brown carbon in atmospheric fine particles via a versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES). Science of The Total Environment 2022 837: 155817.


    22. Zhai, J.; Yang, X.; Li, L.; Bai, B.; Liu, P.; Huang, Y.; Fu, T.-M.; Zhu, L.; Zeng, Z.; Tao, S.; Lu, X.; Ye, X.; Wang, X.; Wang. L.; Chen, J. Absorption enhancement of black carbon aerosols constrained by mixing-state heterogeneity. Environmental Science & Technology 2022 56(3): 1586-1593.


    23. Shang, X.; Kang, H.; Chen, Y.; Abdumutallip, M.; Li, L.; Li, X.; Fu, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, L.; Wang, X.; Ouyang, H.; Tang, X.; Xiao, H.; George, C.; Chen, J. PM1.0-Nitrite Heterogeneous Formation Demonstrated via a Modified Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System Coupled with Ion Chromatography. Environmental Science & Technology 2021 55(14): 9794-9804.


    24. Li, K.; Wang, X.; Lu, X.; Chen, H.; Yang, X. Effect of Pollution Level on Size Distributions and Mixing State of Ambient Black Carbon Particles in an Urban Area during Wintertime. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 2021 21(9).


    25. Sun, W.; Zhu, L.; De Smedt, I.; Bai, B.; Pu, D.; Chen, Y.; Shu, L.; Wang, D.; Fu, T. M.; Wang, X. Global significant changes in formaldehyde (HCHO) columns observed from space at the early stage of the COVID‐19 pandemic. Geophysical Research Letters 2021 48(4): 2e020GL091265.


    26. Wang, S.; Zhou, K.; Lu, X.; Chen, H.; Yang, F.; Li, Q.; Yang, X.*; Wang, X.*, Measurement of Density and Shape for Single Black Carbon Aerosols in a Heavily Polluted Urban Area. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 2021 21(12) 210162.


    27. Mitts, B. A.; Wang, X.; Lucero, D. D.; Beall, C. M.; Deane, G. B.; DeMott, P. J.; Prather, K. A. Importance of Supermicron Ice Nucleating Particles in Nascent Sea Spray. Geophysical Research Letters 2021 48(3).


    28. Zhu, S.; Li, L.; Wang, S.; Li, M.; Liu, Y.; Chen, H.; Wang, L.; Chen, J.; Zhou, Z.; Yang, X.*; Wang, X.*, Development of an Automatic Linear Calibration Method for High Resolution Single Particle Mass Spectrometry: Improved Chemical Species Identification for Atmospheric Aerosols. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 2020 13, 4111–4121.


    29. Wang, X.; Ye, X.; Chen, J.; Wang, X.*; Yang, X.*; Fu, T.-M.; Zhu, L.; Liu, C, Direct links between hygroscopicity and mixing state of ambient aerosols: Estimating particle hygroscopicity from their single particle mass spectra. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics 2020 20, 6273–6290.


    30. Ma, Y.; Fu, T.-M.; Tian, H.; Gao, J.; Hu, M.; Guo, J.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, L.; Yang, X.; Wang, X. Emergency Response Measures to Alleviate a Severe Haze Pollution Event in Northern China during December 2015: Assessment of Effectiveness. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 2020 20(10): 2098-2116.


    31. Xu, J.; Tian, Y.; Cheng, C.; Wang, C.; Lin, Q.; Li, M.; Wang, X.; Shi, G., Characteristics and source apportionment of ambient single particles in Tianjin, China: The close association between oxalic acid and biomass burning. Atmospheric Research 2020 237 104843


    32. Zhang, C.; Zou, X.; Chang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, X.*; Yang, X.*, Source assessment of atmospheric fine particulate matter in a Chinese megacity: Insights from long-term, high-time resolution chemical composition measurements from Shanghai flagship monitoring supersite. Chemosphere 2020 251 126598


    33. Xu, X.; Lu, X.; Li, X.; Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Chen, H.; Chen, J.; Yang, X.; Fu, T.-M.; Zhao, Q.; Fu, Q. ROS-generation potential of Humic-like substances (HULIS) in ambient PM2.5 in urban Shanghai: Association with HULIS concentration and light absorbance. Chemosphere 2020 256.


    34. Liu, Y.; Zhao, Q.; Hao, X.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, Y.; Yang, X.; Fu, Q.; Xu, X.; Wang, X.; Huo, J.; Chen, J. Increasing surface ozone and enhanced secondary organic carbon formation at a city junction site: An epitome of the Yangtze River Delta, China (2014-2017). Environmental Pollution 2020 265.


    35. Li, J.; Zhu, C.; Chen, H.; Fu, H.; Xiao, H.; Wang, X.; Herrmann, H.; Chen, J. A More Important Role for the Ozone-S(IV) Oxidation Pathway Due to Decreasing Acidity in Clouds. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 2020 125(18).


    36. Feng, H.; Ye, X.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Z.; Gao, T.; Cheng, A.; Wang, X.; Chen, J. Simultaneous determination of nine atmospheric amines and six inorganic ions by non-suppressed ion chromatography using acetonitrile and 18-crown-6 as eluent additive. Journal of Chromatography A 2020 1624.


    37. Mayer K. J.#; Wang, X. #; Santander, M. V.; Mitts B. A.; Sauer J.S.; Sultana, C. M.; Cappa, C. D.; Prather, K. A., Secondary Marine Aerosol Plays a Dominant Role over Primary Sea Spray Aerosol in Cloud Formation. ACS Central Science 2020 6, 2259–2266.


    38. Zhou, K.; Wang, S.; Lu, X.; Chen, H.; Chen, J.; Wang, L.; Yang, X.*; Wang, X.*, Production flux and chemical characteristics of spray aerosol generated from raindrop impact on seawater and soil. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 2020 125, e2019JD032052.


    39. Lee, H. D.; Morris, H. S.; Laskina, O.; Sultana, C. M.; Lee, C.; Jayarathne, T.; Cox, J. L.; Wang, X.; Hasenecz, E. S.; DeMott, P. J.; Bertram, T. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Stone, E. A.; Prather, K. A.; Grassian, V. H.; Tivanski, A. V., Organic Enrichment, Physical Phase State, and Surface Tension Depression of Nascent Core–Shell Sea Spray Aerosols during Two Phytoplankton Blooms. ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 2020 4, 650–660.


    40. Trueblood, J. V.; Wang, X.; Or, V. W.; Alves, M. R.; Santander, M. V.; Prather, K. A.; Grassian, V. H., The Old and the New: Aging of Sea Spray Aerosol and Formation of Secondary Marine Aerosol through OH Oxidation Reactions. ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 2019 3(10) 2307-2314.


    41. Nandy, L.; Liu, S.; Gunsbury, C.; Wang, X.; Pendergraft, M. A.; Prather, K. A.; Dutcher, C. S., Multistep Phase Transitions in Sea Surface Microlayer Droplets and Aerosol Mimics using Microfluidic Wells. ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 2019 3, 1260–1267.


    42. Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, X.; Yang, X.; Zou, Z.; Zhang, C.; Fu, Q.; Xu, J., Gao, W.; Li, N.; Chen, J.; Changes in the SO2 Level and PM2.5 Components in Shanghai Driven by Implementing the Ship Emission Control Policy. Environmental Science & Technology 2019 53(19) 11580-11587.


    43. Li, K.; Ye, X.; Pang, H.; Lu, X.; Chen, H.; Wang, X.*; Yang, X.*; Chen, J.; Chen, Y., Temporal variations in the hygroscopicity and mixing state of black carbon aerosols in a polluted megacity area. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics 2018 18 (20) 15201-15218


    44. Wang, X.; Wang, H.; Jing, H.; Wang, W. N; Cui, W.; Williams, B. J.; Biswas, P., Formation of Nitrogen-Containing Organic Aerosol during Combustion of High Sulfur Content Coal. Energy & Fuels. 2017 31, 14161–14168.


    45. Pham, D. Q.; O'Brien, R. E.; Fraund, M.; Bonanno, D.; Laskina, O.; Beall, C.; Moore, K. A.; Forestieri, S.; Wang, X.; Lee, C.; Sultana, C. M.; Grassian, V. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Prather, K. A.; Moffet, R. C., Biological Impacts on Carbon Speciation and Morphology of Sea Spray Aerosol. ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 2017 1, 551–561.


    46. Wang, X.#; Grant, D. B.#; Moore, K. A.; Ryder, O. S.; Stokes, M. D.; Beall, C. M.; Collins, D. B.; Santander, M. V.; Burrows, S. M.; Sultana, C. M.; Prather, K. A., The role of jet and film drops in controlling the mixing state of submicron sea spray aerosol particles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2017 114, 6978–6983. (#: these authors controbute equally to this paper)


    47. Wang, X.; Li, S.; Wang, W. N.; Biswas, P., Mercury oxidation during coal combustion by injection of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), International Journal of Coal Geology 2017 170, 54-59.


    48. Wang, X.; He, J.; Dhungel, B.; Wang, W. N.; Kumfer, B. M.; Axelbaum, R. L.; Biswas, P., Characterization of Organic and Black Carbon Aerosol Formation during Coal Combustion: An Experimental Study in a 1MW Pilot Scale Coal Combustor. Fuel 2016 180, 653-658.


    49. Forestieri, S. D.; Cornwell, G. C.; Helgestad, T. M.; Moore, K. A.; Lee, C.; Novak, G. A.; Sultana, C. M.; Wang, X.; Bertram T. H.; Prather, K. A.; Cappa C. D.; Linking variations in sea spray aerosol particle hygroscopicity to composition during two microcosm experiments. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2016 16, 9003-9018.


    50. Wang, X. #; Sultana, C. M. #; Trueblood, J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Malfatti, F.; Lee, C.; Laskina, O.; Moore, K. A.; Beall, C. M.; McCluskey, C. S.; Cornwell, G. C.; Zhou, Y.; Cox, J. L.; Pendergraft, M. A.; Santander, M. V.; Bertram, T. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Azam, F.; DeMott, P. J.; Grassian, V. H.; Prather, K. A., Microbial Control of Sea Spray Aerosol Composition: A Tale of Two Blooms. ACS Central Science 2015 1, 124–131. (#: these authors controbute equally to this paper)


    51. Wang, X.; Williams, B. J.; Biswas, P., Characteristics of Particulate Matter Emissions from Toy Cars with Electric Motors Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2015 65, 492-499.


    52. Wang, X.; Cotter, E.; Iyer, K. N.; Fang, J.; Williams, B. J.; Biswas, P., Relationship between Pyrolysis Products and Organic Aerosols Formed during Coal Combustion. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 2015 35, 2347-2354.


    53. Jing, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, W. N.; Biswas, P., Elemental mercury oxidation in an electrostatic precipitator enhanced with in situ soft X-ray irradiation. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 2015 65, 455-465.


    54. Wang, X.; Daukoru, S. M.; Torkamani, S.; Wang, W. N.; Biswas, P., Role of Exhaust Gas Recycle on Submicrometer Particle Formation during Oxy-coal Combustion. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 2013, 34, 3479-3487.


    55. Wang, X.; Williams, B. J.; Wang, X.; Tang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Kong, L.; Yang, X.; Biswas, P., Characterization of Organic Aerosol Produced during Pulverized Coal Combustion in a Drop Tube Furnace. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2013, 13, 10919-10932.


    56. Yang, F.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, X.; Chen, H.; Yang, X.; Chen, J., Real-time, single-particle measurements of ambient aerosols in Shanghai. Frontiers of Chemistry in China 2010, 5, 331-341.


    57. Wang, X.; Gao, S.; Yang, X.; Chen, H.; Chen, J.; Zhuang, G.; Surratt, J. D.; Chan, M. N.; Seinfeld, J. H., Evidence for High Molecular Weight Nitrogen-Containing Organic Salts in Urban Aerosols. Environmental Science & Technology 2010, 44, 4441-4446.


    58. Zhang, Y.; Yang, F.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Chen, H.; Yang, X., Single particle mass spectrometry of zinc and copper-containing aerosols in Shanghai. Journal of Fudan University (Natural Science) 2010, 51-59 (In Chinese).


    59. Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, H.; Yang, X.; Chen, J.; Geng, F., Particulate Nitrate Formation in a Highly Polluted Urban Area: A Case Study by Single-Particle Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai. Environmental Science & Technology 2009, 43, 3061-3066.


    60. Zhang, Y.; Wang, X.; Chen, H.; Yang, X.; Chen, J.; Allen, J. O., Source apportionment of lead-containing aerosol particles in Shanghai using single particle mass spectrometry. Chemosphere 2009, 74, 501-507.


  • Teaching

    Undergraduate course: Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry (with Prof. Lin Wang), Spring

    Course Website: ac-fudan.sxl.cn


    Graduate course: Application of MATLAB in Environmental Modelling, Fall

  • Job Openings

    Postdoc and graduate students positions are available! Please contact Dr. Wang directly!



    Email: xiaofeiwang [at] fudan [dot] edu [dot] cn

    Lab Address: Rooms 4012 & 7012, Environmental Science Building, Fudan Jiangwan Campus


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    Room 7012: Online analysis lab

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    Room 4012: Offline analysis lab